|Posted by vidhi nangia on June 30, 2014 at 7:30 AM||comments (0)|
1) The world's highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level.
2) India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world.
3)The largest employer in India is the Indian Railways, employing over a million people.
4)The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
5)Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.
6)India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India's wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.
7)The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'.
8 )Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.
9)The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.
10)Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).
11)Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world
|Posted by vidhi nangia on June 21, 2014 at 5:50 AM||comments (0)|
In India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters. Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.
India's National game is hockey.Field hockey in India is administered by Hockey India. The Indian national hockey team won the 1975 Hockey World Cup and have, as of 2012, taken eight gold, one silver, and two bronze Olympic medals, making it the sport's most successful team in the Olympics.
CRICKET-Lifeline of INDIA
A very popular sport in India.India has also played a major role in popularising cricket. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular sport of India. The Indian national cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup events, the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka, and won 2013 ICC Champions Trophy. Cricket in India is administered by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI); the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy, and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy are domestic competitions. The BCCI is also responsible for conducting an annual Twenty20 competition known as the Indian Premier League.
India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where Team India won three out of four tournaments to date. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are the highest forms of government recognition for athletic achievement; the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.
|Posted by Niketa on June 19, 2014 at 5:55 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted by Ananya Chawla on May 28, 2014 at 9:00 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted by Sanya Arora on March 27, 2014 at 5:10 PM||comments (0)|
India... A house of several religions!
Religion in India is defined by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. India is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions, namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Throughout India's history, religion has been an important part of the country's culture.
Hinduism is the dominant religion. It includes Shaivism, Vaishnism and Shaktism. It is a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of daily morality based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and many practitioners refer to Hinduism as Santana Dharma, "the eternal law" beyond human origins. It prescribes the "eternal duties” such as honesty, purity, and self-restraint.
Within Hinduism a large number of personal gods are worshipped as murtis. These beings are significantly powerful entities known as devas. The exact nature of belief in regards to each deity varies between differing Hindu denominations and philosophies. Often these beings are depicted in humanoid or partially humanoid forms, complete with a set of unique and complex iconography in each case. The devas are expansions of Brahman into various forms, each with a certain quality. In the Rigveda 33 devas are described, which are personifications of phenomena in nature.
Hindus have special requirements based on their tradition, scriptures, culture and belief system. One of those requirements is a dress code. Men and women wear forehead markings. Women who are married have a red dot (bindi) and orthodox men have a religious marking (tilak). In today’s society, the bindi no longer represents marriage but has become fashionable among young girls who wear it in different colours. Women who are married wear a mangalsutra around their neck, which is a necklace tied around the bride’s neck by the groom on the day of the wedding. Though today many Hindu girls and women wear bangles it was also used as a symbol of marriage. Men are allowed to sport a sikha – a tuft of hair like ponytail – on the back of their heads. As for traditional clothing, some Hindu men wear a dhoti kurta, a chaddar which can be wrapped around the shoulders and torso during cold weather and a churidar during worship, prayer or festival days. For women, a traditional dress is known as a sari or a salwarkameez. In India you will still see a lot of women wearing the sari, the salwarkameez consists of two parts: a tunic (kameez) that covers loose trousers (salwar). During worship or other appropriate times, women will cover their heads.
|Posted by Ananya Chawla on March 21, 2014 at 9:40 PM||comments (2)|
|Posted by Zoi Tekeloglou on March 21, 2014 at 9:30 AM||comments (1)|
Greeks wear traditional costumes on special occasions, such as holidays and weddings. The style of the costumes has its roots in ancient Greek fashion and Byzantine era. There are many types of traditional costumes, varying from one region to another due to climate conditions, season, wealth and political situation - in times of peace costumes were different from the ones in war : clothes were more elaborate, fancy, they had cheerful colours and many jewellery whereas the others were more plain. The national dress worn by men is the Fustanella and it is a traditional skirt-like piece of clothing. The different types of traditional Greek clothing for men and women can be seen below:
|Posted by Palak Sharma on March 19, 2014 at 12:40 AM||comments (0)|
Indian culture is thousand years old and it reflects harmony and peace. The Indian Culture is an integration of the traditions, dreams and ethnicity of the variety of empires that dictated the country as and when they ruled. India even today has deep imprints of Indus Valley Civilization in terms of culture, the Buddhists, Mughal Era, etc.
Indian culture is huge to understand and it cannot be covered in just a few words. From language to food, to religion and beliefs, each family in India represents a different culture, a different outlook towards life. Such diversity is all aspects of life signify the high endurance level of the culture and the ability of the citizens to adapt and adjust according to the changes. That’s the base of Indian culture which has successfully thrived.
Wherever you go, you will find people speaking different languages and eating different food. The clothes too reflect start differences between modern and traditional. The villages of India still have the old feel to them with women dresses in sarrees and men draped in sarongs driving ox. Whereas, the modern India is technical and growing with leaps and bounds.
The Indian value system has respect for everyone at its base. Tradition in India is not new but has been transferred from generations to generations. Though there cons of it like old dogmas and folly beliefs which the rural parts still fight with, the culture is simple and exuberates piousness.
Westernization has affected India too and it has been has brought about several positive changes like women empowerment and gender equality. Although, an Indian work in multinational, wears western clothes and speaks in English he is absolutely grounded and has firm Indian values. Indians everywhere are famous for their hospitality and adaptability. It doesn’t come as surprise that Indians everywhere are doing so well in all the fields.
Apart from all this India is a great country form a tourist point of view. There are millions from abroad that visit India for number of reasons. Some come here for self discovery or have some thrilling adventures. India is one of the best places to indulge into a wide variety of adventure sports. If you want to go Trekking or Jeep Safari you can go to the north into the Himalayas or if you wish you love water you can travel to south to the Andaman islands or Goa. If you have always dreamt of hot air balloons then Rajasthan is the place for you or if you would like to be closer to Wildlife India has a huge list of must visit national parks and tiger reserves. Whatever the degree of sport be India has it on offer. With the tourism industry investing millions in its infrastructure India is on its way to become one of the leaders in tourism.
Adventure is one of the best way to explore the country. It offers lots of opportunities to interact with the locals and take a sneak peek into the normal Indian life style. You can experience traveling in rickshaws and local trains and buses. You can see the heat and dust and be as close to reality. The stark difference that you find within a few 100 kms being at just one place is a jolt to the senses. And traveling is the only way one can understand this. The vividness of India can be put into words but to have an up close and personal experience you need to get involved in one of the several adventure activities available here.
|Posted by Shivani on March 18, 2014 at 2:20 PM||comments (1)|
Bollywood is the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (Bombay), Maharashtra, India. It is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centres of film production in the world. There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. It is common to see films that feature dialogue with English words , phrases, or even whole sentences. The name "Bollywood" is a word derived from Bombay and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry.
Raja Harishchandra (1913), by Dadasaheb Phalke, is known as the first silent feature film made in India. The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931), was a major commercial success. In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first colour film in Hindi, Kisan Kanya. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Following India's independence, the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s is regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema. Some of the most critically acclaimed Hindi films of all time were Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955). Some of the most famous epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time, including Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960). Successful actors at the time included Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor and Guru Dutt, while successful actresses included Nargis, Nutan,Madhubala, Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha. Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival, Hindi films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Orat the Cannes Film Festival throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, with some of them winning major prizes at the festival. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, romance movies and action films starred actors like Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra and Shashi Kapoor and actresses like Sharmila Tagore and Asha Parekh. . Amitabh Bachchan, the star known for his "angry young man" roles, rode the crest of this trend with actors like Mithun Chakraborty, Anil Kapoor and Sunny Deol, which lasted into the early 1990s. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan and Rekha. A crime film pitting "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan", portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan, it was described as being "absolutely key to Indian cinema" by Danny Boyle. The most internationally acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (1988), which won the Camera d'Or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the pendulum swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals with the success of such films as Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), Maine Pyar Kiya (1989) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), making stars out of a new generation of actors and actresses. In that point of time, action and comedy films were also successful, with actors like Govinda and actresses such as Raveena Tandon and Karisma Kapoor appearing in popular comedy films, and stunt actor Akshay Kumar gaining popularity for performing dangerous stunts in action films in his well known Khiladi and other action films.The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity in the world. Some of the largest production houses, among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. The mid-2000s also saw the rise of a new generation of popular actors like Hrithik Roshan, Saif Ali Khan, Shahid Kapoor, and Abhishek Bachchan, as well as a new generation of popular actresses like Rani Mukerji, Preity Zinta, Aishwarya Rai, Kareena Kapoor, and Priyanka Chopra. The 2010s also saw the rise of a new crop of actors like Ranbir Kapoor, Ranveer Singh, and Arjun Kapoor, as well as actresses like Deepika Padukone, Anushka Sharma, and Parineeti Chopra. The Hindi film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience, and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences.
|Posted by Gianluca Mastronardi on March 17, 2014 at 4:20 PM||comments (0)|
Hi guys, come and visit Benevento, a town of whitches and old legends,history,traditions and special events. It's a history steeped land, home of friendly, hospitable people, in the south of Italy that dates back to ancient times:Lombards,Romans. Make a tour to Roman Traian arch and it will be like staying in Paris. Walk along the streets of the city center and tour the monuments, patrimony of Unesco. Visit the surroundings, beautiful areas of rolling hills, woods, streams and valleys; taste the delicious local food and typical wine called "Aglianico". In every village nearby Benevento you can find typical open-air markets, where tourists can stroll among the coulourfull stalls and buy antiques, food , wine or clothes. It's an enchanting area to explore thanks to the variety of attractions and resorts it offers.
|Posted by Shivani on March 17, 2014 at 2:40 PM||comments (0)|
Dance in India comprises the varied styles of dances in the country. As with other aspects of Indian culture, different forms of dances originated in different parts of India, developed according to the local traditions and also imbibed elements from other parts of the country
Classical dance in India has developed a type of dance-drama that is a form of a total theater. The dancer acts out a story almost exclusively through gestures. Most of the classical dances enact stories from Hindu mythology.
Bharatanatyam is a classical dance from the South Indianstate of Tamil Nadu, practiced predominantly in modern times by women. The dance is usually accompanied by classical Carnatic music. Its inspirations come from the sculptures of the ancient temple of Chidambaram.
Kathakali is a highly stylized classical dance-drama form which originated from Kerala in the 17th century. This classical dance form is particularly noticed for dancer's elaborate costume, towering head gear, billowing skirts, and long silver nails. Kathakali is performed regularly at festivals in temples.
Originating from north Indian states, in ancient Indian temples Brahmin priests used to narrate the stories of gods and goddesses through dance, they were known as kathakar and the dance came to be known as "kathak" Its form today contains traces of temple and ritual dances, and the influence of the bhakti movement.
Kuchipudi is a classical dance from the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The performance usually begins with some stage rites, after which each of the character comes on to the stage and introduces him/herself with a small composition of both song and dance to introduce the identity, set the mood, of the character in the drama. The dance is accompanied by song which is typically Carnatic music. Ornaments worn by the artists are generally made of a light weight wood.
Odissi, also known as Orissi, originates from the state of Odisha, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences. This dance is characterized by various Bhangas (stanza), which involves stamping of the foot and striking various postures as seen in Indian sculptures. The Odissi dancers use their head, bust and torso in soft flowing movements to express specific moods and emotions.
|Posted by Ricky Bhatia on March 17, 2014 at 9:55 AM||comments (0)|
Connaught Place (Hindi: कनॉट प्लेस, Punjabi: ਕਨਾਟ ਪਲੇਸ, Urdu: کناٹ پلیس, officially Rajiv Chowk) is one of the largest financial, commercial and business centers in Delhi, India. It is often abbreviated as CP and houses the headquarters of several Indian firms. It was earlier the headquarters for the British. Its surroundings occupy a place of pride in the city, counted among the top heritage structures in New Delhi. It was developed as a showpiece of Lutyens' Delhi featuring a Central Business District. Named after H.R.H. Field Marshal The 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the construction work was started in 1929 and completed in 1933. The Inner Circle of Connaught Place was renamed Rajiv Chowk (after the late Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi) and the Outer Circle was renamed Indira Chowk by Union Home Minister S.B. Chavan. Today, Connaught Place is one of the most vibrant business districts of Delhi. It is the fourth most expensive office destination in the world, according to global property consultant CBRE Group and the fifth highest priced market in the world according 2013 Forbes list.
Prior to its construction, the area was a ridge, covered with kikar trees and populated with jackals and wild pigs; residents of Kashmere Gate, Civil Lines area visited during the weekends for partridge hunting. The Hanuman Temple attracted more visitors to the area. These visitors came from the walled city only on Tuesdays and Saturdays and before sunset, as the return trip was considered dangerous. Villages like Madhoganj, Jaisingh Pura and Raja ka Bazaar were evicted to clear the area for the construction of Connaught Place and the development of its nearby areas. The villages once situated along the historic Qutb Road, the main road connecting Shahjahanabad, the walled city of Delhi (now known as Old Delhi) to Qutb Minar in south Delhi since the Mughal era. They were relocated in Karol Bagh to the West, a rocky area populated only by trees and wild bushes. However, three structures were spared demolition. These were Hanuman temple, a Jain temple in Jaisinghpura and the Jantar Mantar.
Early commercial establishments were of traders from Kashmere Gate area, Kaventer's, Galgotia and Snowhite. Most of Indian princely states had their local homes in the nearby areas around King's way (present Rajpath), and would frequent shops for designer clothes, artifacts, shoes, and pianos. Regal cinema, the first cinema of CP also opened in time, it went on to host popular concerts, theatre groups and ballet performances. Odeon and Rivoli followed Regal, and the Indian Talkie House opened in 1938. Initially only Indian snacks were available at CP, but gradually restaurants started opening in the plaza, with names like Kwality, United Coffee House and others offering Continental and Mughlai cuisines. Wenger's, the confectioners, was one of the first shops in CP, it also owned the largest restaurant in New Delhi on the first floor of their present A-Block outlet. Originally established in 1926 as Spencers in Kashmere Gate, Wenger's was owned by a Swiss couple and introduced Delhi to pastries and homemade Swiss chocolates, though in its early years it too was patronized mostly by Britisher officers, Indian royalty and some foreign-returned businessmen, for Delhi was still a city of classical tastes of the walled city. Davico's across the Connaught Plaza, and Standard restaurant were popular names for decades before fading away. Another old timer, the Embassy Restaurant, was opened in 1948. The Imperial, New Delhi’s first luxury hotel opened in 1931 on Queen's Way, (present Janpath), which eventually became a haunt for the royalty and at place for political talks. It was here that Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohandas K. Gandhi, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Lord Mountbatten met to discuss the Partition of India and the birth of Pakistan.
Residents moved in gradually into first floor quarters which were almost full by 1938, but it was another decade before the plaza became the busy market place that it became later, as World War II started and the Independence movement reached a feverish pitch. Markets experienced dwindling sales, but post-independence business started increasing by the 1950s.
Until the 1980s, a Phatphat Sewa, a Harley Davidson rickshaw service, took visitors from CP to Red Fort and Chandani Chowk, before it was stopped due to pollution concerns. The empty block of the Inner circle was filled up in late 1970s with the construction of an underground market, a first in Delhi, Palika Bazaar at the junction point. Stretching up to the Outer circle, it also came with an adjoining underground parking. Also in 1970s came State Emporiums on Baba Karak Singh Marg radial. However, a major alteration in the skyline was the addition of red sandstone (inspired by the historic Red Fort) and glass skyscraper, the Jeevan Bharti building (LIC building), designed by architect Charles Correa. In 1986, it towered over the low-lying and predominantly white Connaught Place and was criticised for being too futurist, but gradually as other skyscrapers mushroomed on the periphery the debate faded away.
|Posted by Ricky Bhatia on March 17, 2014 at 9:40 AM||comments (0)|
Holi (English pronunciation: /ˈhoʊliː/) (Sanskrit: होली) is a spring festival also known as the festival of colours and the festival of love. It is an ancient Hindu religious festival which has become popular with non-Hindus in many parts of South Asia, as well as people of other communities.
There is a symbolic legend to explain why holi is celebrated. The word "Holi" originates from "Holika", the evil sister of demon king Hiranyakashipu. King Hiranyakashipu had earned a boon that made him virtually indestructible. The special powers blinded him, he grew arrogant, felt he was God, and demanded that everyone worship only him.
Hiranyakashipu's own son, Prahlada, however, disagreed. He was and remained devoted to Vishnu. This infuriated Hiranyakashipu. He subjected Prahlada to cruel punishments, none of which affected the boy or his resolve to do what he thought was right. Finally, Holika - Prahlada's evil aunt - tricked him into sitting on a pyre with her. Holika was wearing a cloak (shawl) that made her immune to injury from fire, while Prahlada was not. As the fire roared, the cloak flew from Holika and encased Prahlada. Holika burned, Prahlada survived. Vishnu appeared and killed Hiranyakashipu. The bonfire is a reminder of the symbolic victory of good over evil, of Prahlada over Hiranyakashipu, of fire that burned Holika. The day after Holika bonfire is celebrated as Holi.
In Braj region of India, where Krishna grew up, the festival is celebrated for 16 days (until Rangpanchmi) in commemoration of the divine love of Radha for Krishna, a Hindu deity. The festivities officially usher in spring, with Holi celebrated as festival of love. There is a symbolic myth behind commemorating Krishna as well. Baby Krishna transitioned into his characteristic dark blue skin colour because a she demon Putana poisoned him with her breast milk. In his youth, Krishna despairs whether fair skinned Radha and other Gopikas (girls) will like him because of his skin colour. His mother, tired of the desperation, asks him to approach Radha and colour her face in any colour he wanted. This he does, and Radha and Krishna became a couple. The playful colouring of the face of Radha has henceforth been commemorated as Holi. Beyond India, these legends to explain the significance of Holi (Phagwah) are common in some Caribbean and South American communities of Indian origin such as Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.
Holi festival has other cultural significance. It is the festive day to end and rid oneself of past errors, end conflicts by meeting others, a day to forget and forgive. People pay or forgive debts, as well as deal anew with those in their lives. Holi also marks the start of spring, and for many the start of new year.
Holi frolic and celebrations begin the morning after Holika bonfire. There is no tradition of holding puja (prayer), and the day is for partying and pure enjoyment. Children and youth groups form armed with dry colours, coloured solution, means to fill and spray others with coloured solution (pichkaris), balloons that can hold coloured water, and other creative means to colour their targets.
In Braj region of North India, women have the option to playfully hit men who save themselves with shields; for the day, men are culturally expected to accept whatever women dish out to them. This ritual is called Lath Mar Holi.
Traditionally, washable natural plant-derived colours such as turmeric, neem, dhak, kumkum were used; but water-based commercial pigments are increasingly used. All colours are used. Everyone in open areas such as streets and parks are game. Inside homes or at doorways though, only dry powder is used to smear each other's face. People throw colours, and get their targets completely coloured up. It is like a water fight, but where the water is coloured. People take delight in spraying coloured water on each other. By late morning, everyone looks like a canvas of colours. This is why Holi is given the name “Festival of Colours.”
Groups sing and dance, some playing drums and dholak. After each stop of fun and play with colours, people offer gujiya, mathri, malpuas and other traditional delicacies. Chilled drinks, including adult drinks based on local intoxicating herbs, is also part of the Holi festivity.
Friends form groups on Holi, play drums and music, sing and dance, as they move from one stop to another.
In Braj region around Mathura, in north India, the festivities may last more than week. The rituals go beyond playing with colours, and include a day where men go around with shields and women have the right to playfully beat them on their shields with sticks.
In south India, some worship and make offerings to Kaamadeva, the love god of Indian mythology, on Holi.
After a day of play with colours, people clean up, wash and bathe, sober and dress up in the evening and greet friends and relatives by visiting them and exchange sweets. Holi is also a festival of forgiveness and new starts, which ritually aims to generate harmony in the society.
|Posted by Divya Verma on March 16, 2014 at 2:15 PM||comments (0)|
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahatma (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa,—is now used worldwide. He is also called Bapu (Gujarati: endearment for "father", "papa" in India. Gandhi is commonly, though not officially, considered the Father of the Nation in India. His birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and world-wide as the International Day of Nonviolence.
The Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C., commonly known as Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was a Roman Catholic Religious Sister and missionary of Albanian origin who lived most of her life in India of which, since 1948, she was a citizen.Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries. Mother Teresa was the recipient of numerous honours including the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. In late 2003, she was beatified, the third step toward possible sainthood, giving her the title "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta". A second miracle credited to her intercession is required before she can be recognised as a saint by the Catholic Church.Mother Teresa had first been recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier when she was awarded the Padma Shri in 1962 and the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1969. She continued to receive major Indian awards in subsequent years, including India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, in 1980. Her official biography was written by an Indian civil servant, Navin Chawla, and published in 1992.
Rabindranath Tagoreβ[›] About this sound pronunciation (help·info) [rəˈbindrəˈnɑt ˈtɑɡɔr], also written Ravīndranātha Thākura [rəˈvindrəˈnɑtə ˈtɑkʊrə], (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941),γ[›] sobriquet Gurudev,δ[›] was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. Tagore introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern South Asia.
Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindustani: [ˈdʒəʋaːɦərˈlaːl ˈneːɦru] ( listen); 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics for much of the 20th century. He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian Independence Movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and ruled India from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in office in 1964. Nehru is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state; a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. He was the father of Indira Gandhi and the maternal grandfather of Rajiv Gandhi, who served as the third and sixth Prime Ministers of India, respectively.
Allah-Rakha Rahman (About this sound pronunciation (help·info); born A. S. Dileep Kumar, 6 January 1967) is an Indian composer, singer-songwriter, music producer, musician, multi-instrumentalist and philanthropist. Described as the world's most prominent and prolific film composer by Time, his works are notable for integrating Eastern classical music with electronic music sounds, world music genres and traditional orchestral arrangements. He has won two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, four National Film Awards, fifteen Filmfare Awards and thirteen Filmfare Awards South in addition to numerous other awards and nominations. His extensive body of work for film and the stage earned him the nickname "the Mozart of Madras" and several Tamil commentators and fans have coined him the nickname Isai Puyal (English: Music Storm). In 2009, Time placed Rahman in its list of World's Most Influential People. The UK-based World Music magazine Songlines named him one of 'Tomorrow's World Music Icons' in August 2011.
Amitabh Harivansh Bachchan (IPA: [əmɪˈtaːbʱ ˈbəttʃən]; born 11 October 1942) is an Indian film actor. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s as the "angry young man" of Bollywood, and has since appeared in over 180 Indian films in a career spanning more than four decades. Bachchan is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors in the history of Indian cinema. So total was his dominance of the movie scene in the 1970s and 1980s that the French director François Truffaut called him a "one-man industry".
Bachchan has won many major awards in his career, including three National Film Awards as Best Actor (a record he shares with Kamal Hassan and Mammootty), a number of awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies and fourteen Filmfare Awards. He is the most-nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 39 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter. He also had a stint in politics in the 1980s. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1984 and the Padma Bhushan in 2001 for his contributions towards the arts.
Bachchan made his Hollywood debut in 2013 with The Great Gatsby, in which he played a non-Indian Jewish character, Meyer Wolfsheim.
Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani (28 December 1932 – 6 July 2002), better known as Dhirubhai Ambani, was an Indian business tycoon who founded Reliance Industries in Bombay with his cousin. He figured in The Sunday Times list of top 50 businessmen in Asia. Ambani took Reliance Industries public in 1977, and by 2007 the combined fortune of the family was $60 billion, making the Ambanis the second richest family in the world. Ambani died on 6 July 2002.
Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy CBE (Kannada: ನಾಗವಾರ ರಾಮರಾವ್ ನಾರಾಯಣ ಮೂರ್ತಿ; born 20 August 1946), commonly referred to as Narayana Murthy, is an Indian IT industrialist and the co-founder of Infosys, a multinational corporation providing business consulting, technology, engineering, and outsourcing services. Murthy studied electrical engineering at the National Institute of Engineering, University of Mysore, and M. Tech at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.
Before starting Infosys, Murthy worked with Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad as chief systems programmer and Patni Computer Systems in Pune (Maharashtra). He started Infosys in 1981 and served as its CEO from 1981 to 2002 and as chairman from 2002 to 2011. In 2011, he stepped down from the board and became Chairman Emeritus. On 1 June 2013, Murthy was appointed as Additional Director and Executive Chairman of the board for a period of five years.
Murthy has been listed among the 12 greatest entrepreneurs of our time by Fortune magazine. He has been described as Father of Indian IT sector by Time magazine due to his contribution to outsourcing in India. Murthy has also been honoured with the Padma Vibhushan and Padma Shri awards.
Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar (Listeni/ˌsətʃɪn tɛnˈduːlkər/; born 24 April 1973) is a former Indian cricketer widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of the modern generation, popularly holds the title "God of Cricket" among his fans. Some commentators, such as former West Indian batsman Brian Lara, have labelled Tendulkar the greatest cricketer of all time. He took up cricket at the age of eleven, made his Test debut against Pakistan at the age of sixteen, and went on to represent Mumbai domestically and India internationally for close to twenty-four years. He is the only player to have scored one hundred international centuries, the first batsman to score a Double Century in a One Day International, and the only player to complete more than 30,000 runs in international cricket. In October 2013, he became the 16th player and first Indian to aggregate 50,000 runs in all recognised cricket.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindustani: [ˈɪnːdɪrə ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was the third Prime Minister of India and a central figure of the Indian National Congress party. Gandhi, who served from 1966 to 1977 and then again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, is the second-longest-serving Prime Minister of India and the only woman to hold the office.
Indira Gandhi was the only child of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. She served as the Chief of Staff of her father's highly centralized administration between 1947 and 1964 and came to wield considerable unofficial influence in government. Elected Congress President in 1959, she was offered the premiership in succession to her father. Gandhi refused and instead chose to become a cabinet minister in the government. She finally consented to become Prime Minister in succession to Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966.
As Prime Minister, Gandhi became known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the regional hegemon of South Asia. Gandhi also presided over a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 during which she ruled by decree and made lasting changes to the constitution of India. She was assassinated in the aftermath of Operation Blue Star.
In 2001, Gandhi was voted the greatest Indian Prime Minister in a poll organised by India Today. She was also named "Woman of the Millennium" in a poll organised by the BBC in 1999
|Posted by Divya Verma on March 16, 2014 at 2:10 PM||comments (0)|
East India (also known as Eastern India) is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands. West Bengal's capital Kolkata is the largest city of this region. The states of Odisha and West Bengal share some cultural and linguistic characteristics with Bangladesh and with the state of Assam.. Oriya is the only language in east India accorded the status of a Classical Language of India. Together with Bangladesh, West Bengal formed the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal before partition in 1947. The historic region of Bengal which was ruled by Nawabs of Bengal comprises the present, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Bangladesh from where the British started their conquest of India.
The bulk of the region lies on the east coast of India by the Bay of Bengal, and on the Indo-Gangetic plain. Jharkhand, on the Chhota Nagpur plateau, is a hilly and a heavily forested state rich in mineral wealth. The region is bounded by the Nepal and Sikkim Himalayas in the north, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the west, the state of Andhra Pradesh in the south and the Bay of Bengal on the east. It is connected to the Seven Sister States of Northeast India by the narrow Siliguri Corridor in the north east of West Bengal.
Nalanda, Puphagiri and Vikramshila universities as one of the primary institutions of higher learning in ancient India which are present in East India. East India is home to some great universities and Institutions of National Importance.
Bengali is the dominant language of West Bengal as well as the whole of East India, spoken by well over 90 million people. HIndi along with Maithili, Magahi and Bhojpuri is the dominant language of Bihar. Santhali and Magahi are the dominant language of Jharkhand, however 34% people of Jharkhand are tribals (2001 Census) and speak their own tribal languages and use Hindi as second language.
Oriya is the dominant language of the state of Odisha. Oriya is the only classical language in east India and first Indo-Aryan language-family and sixth Indian language to be considered as a classical language in the basis of being old and not burrowed from other languages.      The Indo-Aryan languages spoken in this region descend from the Magadhi Prakrit, which was spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha. Bengali, Oriya and Assamese emerged as distinct languages from Magadhi Prakrit and Maithili around the 9th century CE.
The majority of the population of East India is Hindu with Muslim, Christian, Buddhist and Sikh minorities. The Muslims constitute a very large minority in this region, with 25% of the population in Bengal and 17% in Bihar. They can be found in each and every District of West Bengal and Bihar. Hindus formed 94% of total population of Odisha. Christians are the largest minority in Odisha.
Durga, Jagannath and Shiva are particularly popular Hindu deities in this region. Durga & Kali are patron deities of Bengal and Mithila whereas Jagannath or Vishnu is patron god among Oriya people. Shiva is popular in all areas of eastern states.
Among tribals of the region Hinduism is the dominant religion. Some tribals also follow their indigenous religions (Sarana).
There are several places of pilgrimage for Hinduism. Puri in Odisha is one the four holy City/Dham of Hindu religion and particularly known for Rath Yatra festival. Bhubaneswar is considered to be the "City of Temples".Konark houses an old sun temple.
Bihar Sharif is an important pilgrimage centre for Muslims all over Bihar.
Dakshineswar Kali Temple is a famous historical Kali temple in West Bengal. Kalighat Kali temple in Kolkata is the most important of all Shakti Peethas in India. Belur Math in Kolkata is the headquarters of the Ramkrishna Mission founded by Swami Vivekananda. In Bihar, Gaya is known for temple for salvation of ancestors. Other places are Sultanganj in Bhagalpur and Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga in Deoghar, Jharkhand. Bodh Gaya is the city sacred to Buddhism. There are also other cities sacred to Jains in Bihar and Jharkhand.
Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal which is now divided between the Indian state of West Bengal and today's Bangladesh. Other regions, such as Tripura, and the Barak Valley region of Assam (in India) also have large native Bengali populations and share this cuisine. With an emphasis on fish, vegetables and lentils served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali cuisine is known for its subtle (yet sometimes fiery) flavours, and its huge spread of confectioneries and desserts. It also has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once.
Bengali food has inherited a large number of influences, both foreign and pan-Indian, arising from a historical and strong trade links with many parts of the world. Bengal fell under the sway of various Turkic rulers from the early thirteenth century onwards, and was then governed by the British for two centuries
Only 6% of the population of Odisha is vegetarian, and this is reflected in its cuisine. The oil base used is mostly mustard oil, but in festivals ghee is used. Panch phutana, a mix of cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for tempering vegetables and dals, while garam masala (curry powder) and haladi (turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, a dish made of rice, water, and yogurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer, particularly in the rural areas. Odias are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is considered complete without some dessert at the end. Festivals and fasts witness a cuisine without onion and garlic, whereas other days witness an aroma of garlic and onion paste in curries.
Odissi (Odissi) is the only classical dance in eastern India. It originates from the state of Odisha, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences. There are many folk dances in east India, with the best-known being Ghumura Dance, Sambalpuri and Chhau dance.
|Posted by Divya Verma on March 16, 2014 at 2:05 PM||comments (0)|
West India (also Western India) or the Western region of India consists of the states of Goa, Gujarat and Maharashtra, along with the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It is highly industrialized, with a large urban population. The states are roughly bounded by the Thar Desert in the northwest, the Vindhya Range in the north and the Arabian Sea in the west. A major portion of Western India shares the Deccan Plateau with South India. Before the partition of India, Sindh and Balochistan were also included in this region.The climate varies between tropical wet, tropical wet and dry, and semi arid. The coastal regions experience little seasonal variations although the temperatures range between 20°C to 38°C. Mumbai and northern Konkan regions experience cooler winters with minimum temperatures hovering around 12 °C.
The states of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Goa are culturally varied and distinct, with Gujarat also having a separate identity as a North-western state.
Maharashtrian culture derives from the ancient Hindu Vedic culture influenced deeply by the Maratha Empire. Maharashtrians take great pride in the Maratha Empire, and many places in Maharashtra are named after the founder of the Empire, Shivaji. Marathi literature and cinema are popular in the state as well as across India. Bollywood has had a huge impact on the lifestyle and culture of this part of India as the industry is primarily located in Mumbai.
Gujarati culture is a blend of Indian culture and foreign influence. It has been influenced by the Parsis, who migrated to Gujarat from Persia about a 1000 years ago. Gujarat also saw Turkic and Mughal conquests, as well as a constant stream of back-forth migrations to and from Sindh and Rajasthan, which helped shape the unique cultural landscape of the state. Cultural Events like Rann Utsav, International Kite Festival and Global Garba festivals have been started in Gujarat to showcase its culture internationally.
Goan culture is a unique blend of Indian and Portuguese cultures, as a result of it formerly being part of Portuguese India for 450 years. The state is popular amongst tourists for its beaches, Goan cuisine, temples, churches and architecture. The Churches and Convents of Goa have been declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The cuisine of Western India is diverse. Maharashtrian cuisine is diverse and ranges from bland to fiery hot. Pohay, Shrikhand, Pav Bhaji, Vada Pav are good examples of Maharashtrian cuisine. Goan cuisine is dominated by the use of rice, coconut, seafood, Kokum, cashew-nuts.With its distinct spices and medium of cooking as coconut oil, both vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian cuisine is equally popular. Gujarati cuisine is almost exclusively vegetarian. Gujarat is one of three states in India, with prohibition on alcohol, along with Mizoram and Manipur. In contrast, Maharashtra has some of the best vineyards in India, with Nashik and Sangli districts being the country's biggest grape-producing districts.
|Posted by Divya Verma on March 16, 2014 at 2:00 PM||comments (0)|
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635780 km² or 245476.030 mi²). The region is also known as Dravida as is used in the national anthem.
South India lies in the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad are the largest and most industrialised cities in the region. Chennai is termed as Gateway of South India, being one of the largest metropolitan cities in India.
A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the languages: Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire.
There is a wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from its varied climates and geography. Deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats while tropical dry forests and scrub lands Deccan thorn scrub forests are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have high altitude rain forests called the South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The Malabar Coast moist forests are found on the coastal plains. The Western Ghats itself is a biodiversity hotspot.
Banana, Musaparadisiaca and Moringa oleifera are found extensively in Lakshadweep while coconut plantations provide economic support to the islands. Lashadweep has been declared a bird sanctuary by the Wildlife Institute of India. Crabs, chiefly hermit crabs, parrot fish and butterfly fish are also found on the islands.
South India consists of the four southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the Lakshadweep Islands.
According to some experts, the weltanschauung of South Indians is essentially the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body, and motherhood, which is exemplified through their dance, clothing, and sculptures. South Indian women traditionally wear the Saree while the men wear either a white pancha or a colourful lungi with typical batik patterns.
Rice is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South Indian meals. Coconut is an important ingredient in Kerala whereas Andhra Pradesh cuisine is characterised by pickles and spicy curries. Hyderabadi cuisine a legacy of the past, is popular for its Biryani. Dosa, Idli, Uttapam are popular throughout the region. There are large coffee estates in southern Karnataka and parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
The traditional music of South India is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tyagayya, Annamacharya, Bhakta Ramadasu, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri, Kshetrayya, Subbaraya Shastri, Mysore Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal.
South India is home to several distinct dance forms – the Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, Vilasini Natyam, Kathakali, Yakshagana, Theyyam, Ottamthullal, Margamkali, Oppana, Kerala Natanam and Mohiniaattam.
|Posted by Divya Verma on March 16, 2014 at 1:50 PM||comments (0)|
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat/Āryavarta (Devanagari: उत्तर भारत/आर्यवर्त), is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia. North India has been the historical centre of the Maurya, Gupta, Mughal, Sur, Maratha, Sikh and British Indian Empires. It has a diverse culture, and includes the Hindu pilgrimage centers of Char Dham, Haridwar, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Vaishno Devi and Pushkar, the Buddhist pilgrimage centers of Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar, the Sikh Golden Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Khajuraho temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar Mantar (Jaipur), Bhimbetka Caves, Sanchi monuments, Qutb Minar, Red Fort, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and the Taj Mahal. Hindi is the lingua franca of North India. Northern India includes the following states: JAMMU & KASHMIR, UTTARAKHAND, HIMACHAL PRADESH, HARYANA, PUNJAB, RAJASTHAN, CHANDIGARH and the capital of India NEW DELHI! Several sources consider sizable Muslim populations and deep-seated Islamic, Central Asian and Persian influences to be defining characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and culturally. North India lies mainly in the north Temperate zone of the earth. Though cool or cold winters, hot summers and moderate monsoons are the general pattern . North India is one of the most climatically diverse regions on Earth. During summer, temperature often crosses 35°C in most of the indo-gangetic plains, with temperature even crossing 45 °C in thar desert, rajasthan. During winter, the lowest temperature in the plains dips to below 5 °C, and below freezing point in some states. Heavy to moderate snowfall occurs in these states - Hmachal pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand. Much of north India is notoriously infamous for heavy fog during winters.
Dance of North India too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, and rouf and bhand pather of Kashmir. Main dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama such as kathak of Uttar Pradesh.
Linguistically, North India is dominated by Indo-Aryan languages, although subregions of Northern Dravidian languages, Tibeto-Burman languages (such as Himachal's Lahauli language) and Austroasiatic languages (such as Munda) exist throughout the region. It is in this region, or its proximity, that Sanskrit and the various Prakrits are thought to have evolved.
North Indian vegetation is predominantly deciduous and coniferous. Of the deciduous trees, sal, teak, walnut, sheesham (Indian rosewood) and poplar are some which are important commercially. The Western Himalayan region abounds in chir, pine, deodar (Himalayan cedar), blue pine, spruce, various firs, birch and junipers. Himalayan region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, birch and dwarf willows.
nimal species in North India include Elephant, Tiger, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Sambar (Asiatic stag), Chital (Spotted deer), Hangul (Red deer), Hog Deer, Chinkara (Indian Gazelle), Blackbuck, Nilgai (blue bull antelope), Porcupine, Wild Boar, Indian Fox, Tibetan Sand Fox, Rhesus Monkey, Langur, Jungle Cat, Hyena, Jackal, Black Bear, Himalayan Brown Bear, Sloth Bear, and the endangered Caracal.Reptiles are represented by a large number of snake and lizard species, as well as the ghariyal and crocodiles.
|Posted by Mario on March 16, 2014 at 12:50 AM||comments (0)|
The Arch of Trajan in Benevento is a commemorative arch dedicated to the Emperor Trajan at the opening of the Via Traiana, a variant of the Appian Way which shortened the journey between Benevento and Brindisi.
The monument that reached substantially intact, including several sculptural reliefs that decorate the surface, appears to be the Roman triumphal arch with reliefs best preserved.
The arch was built between 114 and 117 A.D.
In the Lombard period the arc was incorporated on the north side of the city walls and was named the Golden Gate , there arose beside the church of St. Hilary (which has now been set up videomuseo the arc ) . In the Renaissance , was studied by Sebastiano Serlio .
He underwent several restorations due to the damage of time and earthquakes : under Urban VIII , then in 1661, in 1713 and in 1792. In particular in 1713 , when the bow was still used as a port town , crumbled and fell to the architrave of marble that served as the door knocker , and the city council then resolved the expense of 212 ducats for the restoration . The license to spend this sum was granted on 1 December of the same year
In 1850 , on the occasion of a visit by Pope Pius IX, by his order , the arch was isolated by breaking down the houses that were huddled . Today, it is positioned at the end of the short street Trajan, accessible from the main street of the historic center , Corso Garibaldi. It was restored and partially isolated from traffic
|Posted by Matina T <3 on March 15, 2014 at 4:55 PM||comments (0)|
The Minoan Culture
In Ancient Greece
The largest island of Greece, Crete was inhabited for the first time during the Bronze age. Gradually civilization in Crete reached a very high level, from a political, economic and cultural aspect. It is also known as the “Minoan Civilization”.
Since the start of the third millennium B.C. the population of Crete steadily increased. The Minoans had been in touch with other regions of Aegean like Cyprus and Cyclades .
Knossos (pronounced Kuh-nuh-SOS) is the ancient Minoan palace and surrounding city on the island of Crete. King Minos, famous for his wisdom his name to the people of Knossos. The settlement was established well before 2000 BCE and was destroyed, most likely by fire (though some claim a tsunami) c. 1700 BCE. Knossos has been identified with
Plato’s mythical Atlantis from his dialogues of the Timaeus and Critias and is also known in myth most famously through the story of Theseus and the Minotaur. It should be noted that King Minos’ character in the story, as the king who demands human sacrifice from Athens, is at odds with other accounts of him as a king of wisdom and justice who, further, built the first navy and rid the Aegean sea of pirates. This first palace was destroyed c. 1700 BCE and re-built on a grander, though less massive, scale. Great attention was paid to intricacy of architecture and design with less effort spent on defensive walls